Assignment Title







Presented by


M. Phil 2010 Roll no, 10


Presented to

Professor Dr Abdul Sattar Almani






Chapter I


English is spoken through out the world. It is an international language. It is spoken as first language in many countries of the west as England, America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand and so on.  David Crystal writes “English a Germanic language which has come to be spoken world wide by a large ever increasing number of people- 800,000,000 by a conservative estimate, 1, 500, 000, 00 by a liberal estimate. Some 350,000,000 use the language as mother tongue. Further he writes about history of English “English developed in England as the consequence of the Anglo Saxon invasion of the 5th century, and is often accordingly referred to as Anglo Saxon; its oldest extant form,  found in texts from 7th century, generally called Old English. The middle English period, from the 11th to the 14th centuries.”

English as an international language

David Crystal writes “the use of English for purposes of international communication, as encountered especially among people who do not have the language as mother tongue. The language is widely used among the international political, business, academic and scientific communities.

English in Pakistan:

English has got high value in our country Pakistan. It is the language of courts, the language higher studies, it is an official language and also the law and constitution also codified in English.

The interest of students towards English is growing up in Pakistan. Students need English inside as well as outside the classroom. And in Pakistan we do not have more institutions. Consequently we have large classes. The problem of large classes is very much common in all dour provinces.  Both students and teachers suffer form the large size classrooms. We can not open many schools and colleges because the financial condition of the county is not allowing us. But we can manage large size classrooms with proper training and methodologies and more communicative syllabus and curriculum.


            English language teaching in large size classes is a world wide phenomenon especially in the developing countries. Large size classes make the use of certain language teaching materials and methods difficult if not impossible. In certain cases the student feels the content of some of their course meaningless and inappropriate due to the large size of the class. The teachers also feel helpless to impart proper teaching in such classes. Normally they go into these classes just to while away the time without bothering much about the need and interest of their students. English language teachers at all levels generally agree that large classes are big hindrance in teaching. Hence need for management of large size English language classes arises. The only solution generally thought is to avoid large size classes as the management of large classes is not simple but complex. It is also worth investigating the use of term ‘Large classes’; as some teaches appear to regard groups of more than 25 students as a large group and a group of 50 students as intolerable. Apparently it appears that all those who are concerned with this problem have failed to solve it. But this problem can not be left unsolved. Such methods and measures can be evolved which can help us in managing the large size classes.









Statement of the Problem

            The study is designed to find out the problems of large size English language teaching classes and suggest the use of appropriate methods, techniques and approaches to them.




The hypothesis of this study is that the English language teachers require professional training to handle large size English language classrooms and current syllabus need to be modified and made more communicative by editing communicative activities.















This Chapter reviews the related literature published from time to time in different books under the following heads:

  1. Class room management
  2. The issue of large size classrooms
  3. ELT in present scenario
  4. Methods and strategies of teaching of English in large size classrooms
  5. Problems of large size English classes and their possible solutions.


2.1 Classroom Management

Classroom Management is a Technical term used in the field of education which has special connotation in ELT situation. Jere Brophy and Carolyn Evertson1997 states, “Almost all surveys of teacher effectives report that classroom management skills are of primary importance in determining teaching success, whether it is measured by student learning or by ratings. Thus management skills are crucial and fundamental. A teacher who is grossly inadequate in classroom management skills is probably not going to accomplish much.”

( Jere Brophy and Carelyne Evertson 1976).


Julie Sanford, Edmund Emmer and Barbra Clements 1983 write “The concept of Class room management is broader than the notion of student discipline. It includes all the things teacher must do to foster involvement and cooperation in Classroom activities and to establish a productive working environment.”

( Julie Sanford, Edmund Emmer and Barbra Clements 1983).

Nicholas Long and William Morse write about management of classroom

“No other topic in education receives greater attention or causes more concerns for teachers and parents and students than classroom discipline………. The lack of effective classroom discipline or behavior management skills is the major stumbling block to a successful career in teaching.”

Nicholas Long and William Morse 1996.


Management must be present in an intellectual framework for understanding classroom events and consequences rather than simply as a collection of tricks and specific reaction to behavior.

Walter Doyle (1986 )


Classroom Management according to Daniel Linden Duke is “ Provisions and procedure necessary to establish and maintain an environment in which instruction and learning can occur.


In this way we find that classroom management encompasses a wide range of activities including planning, room arrangement, developing rules and routines and handling unproductive student behavior. Of all the new teachers the biggest source of concern is a large size class management. Most of the teachers have to learn about class on the job.


Takes as a whole, this research suggests that there is no one best way to manage a large size class. As in the cases of instruction and evaluation, a variety of approaches are available for our consideration. It is up to us which approach we adopt according to the talent we have and the context in which we are working.


Actually a teacher cannot carry out proper planning without understanding the class size phenomenon in teaching learning context, which is given below.


2.2 The issue of large size class rooms

There is no absolute agreement upon the optimum class size for the ideal learning situation. The term large size class also varies from situation to situation and institution to institution.


English language teaching class the number of students has to be reasonable so that the teacher can easily communicate with them. In the advanced countries class size is not so great a problem as it is often in the developing countries. In the advanced countries like the USA, the UKm Japan, etc, a class of fewer than 20 is considered generally small, while a group of over 40 is considered large. The average class size is considered of about 25 youngsters, but most teacher agree that 20 is a more desirable enrolment for normal ELT classes. In Pakistan the range of class size differs from that of the developed countries. Here due to over population, lack of proper resources, inefficiently of the administration, etc, the class size is wider. Dr. Fauzia Shamim, Associate Professor, Department of English University of Karachi conduced a survey on teachers, experience and perception of class size at various levels in Pakistan. The survey revealed.


1-                The size of teachers, experienced large class is highest at the tertiary level ( 90.73 ) while it is considerably lower at the secondary and primary levels ( 54.72 and 46.06 respectively ) .

2-                The experience and perceptions of the teachers about class size seem a vary in the two kinds of schools in Pakistan i.e. Private ( English Medium ) schools and government ( Urdu Medium ) schools. Hence while in private schools the average experienced largest class at the secondary level is 45.43, it is considerably higher (6161) is government schools. Similarly the usual class size in private schools is 41.87 while in Government schools is 50.74 (3).


What should be an optimum teacher pupil ratio in an ELT clas is a question which has been bothering the researchers and the educationists of the world for several years. While teachers and parents normally want smaller classes so that the child may get individualized attention, the educational authorities generally favour larger classes so that the cost per child is reduced. First let us see is the small size really better.

Smith and Glass (1980) who examined the question of class size and its relation to attitudes and instructional practices found that.


            Class size affects the quality of the classroom environment. In a smaller class there are more opportunities to adapt learning programmers to the needs of individuals. Many teachers avail them selves of these opportunities, other would need training to do so. Chances are good that the climate is friendlier and more conducive to learning. Students are more directly and personally involved in learning. Class size affects pupils’ attitudes, either as a function of better performance or contributing to it. In smaller classes, pupils have more interest in learning. Perhaps there is little distraction. There seems to be less apathy, friction, frustration. Class size affects teachers, in smaller classes their morale is better they like their pupils better have time to plan, diversify, are more satisfied with their performance. Does this mean that class size is merely a selfish, political issue for teachers ? or is the happier teacher the one who performs better ? This we cannot unravel, except to cite the other evidence….. that the smaller the clas is, the greater is the effect on the instructional process, on pupil affects, and no achievement. ( Indian school a study of teacher pupil ratio 1).


Whereas Whitney and Willy ( 1932) stated that nearly 80 percent of the comparisons of small and large classes favoured the small classes.


Simon Haskell (1964) told that at the secondary level lecture classes could be doubled or tripled in size without loss of effectiveness.


Glass and his associate surveyed 77 empirical research studies of the relationship between class size and learning over 80 year (1900 – 1970) and recorded 725 comparisons of smaller and larger classes. They have found that 435 or 60% of them favoured the smaller class. Small Classes were very much better than large classes, large classes were hardly any better than very large classes they have marked.


  1. In 111 of 160 instances ( 69%) in which classes of approximately 18 to 28 were compared, the smaller classed achieved at a higher level than the larger classes.
  2. In 45 of 46 comparisons ( 98%) of class sizes of about 2 and 28 pupils, the smaller class showed a higher level of achievement than the large class.






It is a fact university acknowledged that today English deserves to be regarded as a world language. It is the first language of the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada and Australia. In addition, it is spoken and read by millions of Europeans, Africans, Chinese, South Asians, Japanese and South Americans as a second language. After Chinese, English is the most widely spoken language. It is the common means of communication between the peoples of different nations. One person of every four on earth can be reached through English. If we look at the media we find over 50% of world’s newspapers, over 55% of world’s scientific and technical periodicals and more than 60% of world’s ratio stations use English as medium of communication. From these facts it can be easily concluded that English is an international language. It helps in interlinking the people of the world. Because of rapid spread of industrial development, science and technology, international trade and commerce and the close interdependence of nations, English has become a world language.


In Pakistan English continues to be the medium of instruction in  private Schools, professional colleges and universities and is also the language of administration, despite the fact that Urdu has been declared the official language.


To teach English to Pakistani Students is not an easy proposition. In fact a teacher faces great difficulties while imparting instructions, rather he finds it to be the most tedious aspect of his profession.

Dr G.A Allana writes in English compulsory B.ed 2000 “English is one of the compulsory subjects from middle school to university level. In model public schools it is compulsory even at the primary level. That is why, it has gained great importance i9n national curriculum. But quite contrary to this, students have been showing a very poor performance in the public examination in this subject. As observed by my educationists the major cause of this unfortunate situation in that our teachers are not well equipped with necessary language skills, which they are deemed to import to their students. They also lack in appropriate teaching methods for importing those skills. Therefore, assigning them to job of English teacher, they need to be trained in important language skills and teaching methods.”  



Teaching a general view

M.Imran yousuf writes in Islamic system of education 2005 “the word teaching is used in various ways. First, it is used to refer to that which is taught, as a doctrine or body of knowledge. Second, teaching is used to refer to an occupation or a profession- the profession of one who instructs or educates. Third, teaching is used to refer to ways of making something known to others, usually in the routine of a school. Teaching is a contact between more mature personality and a less mature one, which is designed to further to education of the later.



Secondary education

Secondary education book is published by Faculty of education A.I.O.U Islamabad. Starts with nature and significance of secondary education. Than types of schools at secondary level are mentioned. Dr Shabir Hussain Raja writes in this book  “ secondary education system is an important sub-sector of entire education system. This level of education , therefore, need to be organized in such a way that it should perform young men and women for the pursuit of higher education , as well as make them able to adjust with their practice live meaningfully and productively. 


Simultaneously teaching of two languages

“Ibn-I-Khaldun strongly opposed the teaching of two languages simultaneously in the early stage of childhood because he thought that it was not possible for the child to attain sufficient mastery over them and that it would detrimental to the learning of his own language”

M.Imran yousuf ,Islamic system of education 2005 ,A.I.O.U Islamabad

Principle of teaching in large size classes

M.Imran Yousuf writes some principle of effective teaching in Islamic system of education in unit no 6 which are as follows:

1. Curiosity or readiness

2. Exemplification

3. Repetition

4. Moving from easy to difficult 

5. Moving from known to unknown

6. Avoiding fatigue and boredom

1. curiosity or readiness


Methods of teaching English

Teaching in classes of large size may not be a big problem so far as the science subject i.e. Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, etc, are concerned. In such subjects the students can easily be taught in the form of group. In subjects like history, Pakistan Studies, Islamite, etc, the students can be taught through lecture method even if the class strength exceeds 100 students. But teaching English in a class of large size is really a difficult task.


Which is the best method?

Dr  Arif Zia writes in English compulsory B.ed 2000 in unit no 9 “ the answer of this question differs from person to person and from situation to situation. But one thing is definite and that is that no method is self sufficient, and no method is perfect method. Therefore, the best approach fro teaching language is elective approach where the teacher combines more than one method in teaching a particular topic. In the beginning for oral practice the “direct method” suits the best. For early reading practice which follows the oral practice “word method” proves useful. When the students have gained some command over the language the “translation method” helps in rapidly moving through the text.

The final decision is always with the teacher. He according to the needs of the students and lesson can best decide which method is used.




Difficulties faced by ELT teachers

Difficulties of the English language teacher are numerous but a few have been enumerated in the book published by AIOU as follows.

(a)  He is tring to teach the English language in the classroom which is perhaps best learnt outsides it.

(b) He has the problem of a large class of may be sixty or more students.

(c)  Mixed ability

(d) The arrangement and the limited physical space in the classroom.

(e)  The restrictions of the syllabus, the limited number of hours available to him in which he can do very little oral work ( 51 ).







Dr. Fauz;ia Shamim of University of Karachi writes about the large size ELT classes as follows.


A number of attempts have been made in recent years to din out how the teachers feel about teaching in large classes.

Teachers consider large classes as one of the most important sources of stress in their professional lives.

Zakia Sarwar in her article on Adapting Individualization Techniques for large classes writes.

Coleman ( 1989) lists four problems faced by teachers of large classes ( 100+). First, they feel self conscious, nervous, and uncomfortable, it is indeed tiring to be the constant focus of 100+ pairs of eyes for three to four periods a day. Secondly, large classed pose disciplinary and class management problems, in which the noise level must be kept down so as not to disturb others, thirdly it is difficult to evaluate the oral or written work of so many learner teachers of large classes seem to be buried under an endless pile of home work. And lastly teachers feel that because individual attention cannot be given, very little learning takes place.


Certain problems which are related to all the large size English language teaching classes and can not be ignored at any time. These problems are as follows.


a.         Discipline.     Discipline is an essential element in teaching learning process. A disciplined class is an ideal field for a teacher to impart knowledge. In a class of 150 to 200 students it is impossible to maintain discipline. May be a teacher is very competent in his profession, his preparation is satisfactory, is smart and punctual but will fail to control and maintain discipline in a large class.


b.        Individual Attention to the Students. A class is composed of individuals who belong to different back ground having different problems. They need to be given individual attention. But how it is possible if a class consist of 150-200 students? It is very difficult to speak and listen to individual students all the time within the period of 40 to 50 minutes. It also becomes difficult for the teacher to know his students individually. It will also be difficult to locate the weak students and help them.


c.         Teacher’s Discomfort. An ELT teacher may be very competent in his subject but he will never find him self at ease when facing a class of 150-200 students. It is not so because the students are not ready to listen to him, but because overall situation is hostile. Teacher can not keep proper eye contact with the class. He can not speak constantly at a high pitch.


f.         Provision of Teaching Material. An ELT Teacher has to teach in the class in a variety of ways. Some times he has to deliver a lecture, but this may required a megaphone to ensure proper listening and comprehension in a large class. Sometimes he has to show slides on overhead Projector. Many a times he has to distribute the copies of his teaching material to the class. For a small class it is easily possible, but for a large class it is difficult. Provision of such helping material required more money and more efforts.

g.         Teaching learning Process. In a class of large size the teaching learning proves gets very slow.

i.          Interaction. In a large class the teachers can not interact freely with the students. The interaction between the teacher and students is restricted.

j.          Administration and Management. Administration and Management of large size ELT classed is another problem. It required a big classroom with sufficient furniture, proper stage and light arrangements and ventilation.  

k.         Ignorance of Real Talent.             Who suffer the maximum in a large size ELT class are the talented students. They are not give individual attention.

l.          Non Adherence to group work activity group work. Activity is non existent in ELT classes of large size, whereas it has been considered very important strategy in managing such classes.

 n.       Students lacking Motivation. It is generally seen that students studying in large size ELT classes are de-motivated   due to noise, overcrowding, lack of proper seating arrangement.

p.        Teaching through lecture method only. In large size ELT classes teachers are forced to depend on lecture method only .






The English language classes in a country like Pakistan, whether at the primary, secondary, or tertiary levels, are bound to be large. The reason is obvious;  the students enrollment does not match with a corresponding expansion in physical or financial resources. The number of school buildings, language classrooms, and teachers has not increased, and where teachers are available for recruitment, they can not be hired for financial constraints.

The issue raised by teaching in large classes are already addressed. Quite a number of teachers who have to cope with classes that contains 50 or more learners are often ill-prepared to be deal with the situation. Most English teachers tend to view teaching English in large classes rather negatively. They often associate large classes with disorderliness, lack of control, lack of students’ attentiveness, lack of teacher- student interactions, entailing lack of efficiency and effectiveness.

Although, exceptions are there; as some teachers are of the contention that large classes do not matter much while teaching language. Anyhow, there are ways to make large classes almost as effective as the smaller ones. Recent research shows that reductions in class size to less than 20 students without change in instructional methods can not guarantee improved academic achievement and that  class size appears to have more influence on students’ attitudes, attention, interest, and motivation than on acedamic achievement.

The problems associated with teaching in large classes can be physical, psychological and technical. The teachers in large classes may feel physically weary; they me be unaware that they speak louder and more often no longer distances than they do in small classes. The observation of classrooms and interviews are used as the instruments for data collection.



3.1 Population

There are 3 high schools in FGEIs Hyderabad Region. This survey shows that all of them  have large size English language classes. The data was collected only from class IX and X.

A survey of FGEIs Hyderabad Region.

Name of school                                              Class                    number of students

FG Public School Hyderabad                        IX A                             67

FG Public School Hyderabad                        IX B                              58

FG Public School Hyderabad                         X A                             61

FG Public School Hyderabad                                    X B                              56

FG Boys’ High School Hyd:                           IX                                 63

FG Boys’ High School Hyd:                            X                                 61

FG Grils’ High School Hyd:                           IX                                 67

FG Grils’ High School Hyd:                           X                                  58










Interview from teacher A

Class ix FG Public School Hyderabad Cantt:


Q no 1:  What is the number of students in your class?

Ans : 67

Q no 2: It means it is a large class. What is your experience about teaching and management of large size classes?

Ans: I have been teaching such classes form 6 years. In the beginning it was difficult but with the passage of time I have learnt to manage them.

Q no 3: How do you manage such large size classes?

Ans: In the schools we have to complete the syllabus. And we focus only on reading skill. Through reading it is easy to mange them. Like, first passage is read by the student who is sitting in the last row than the turn goes to the student who is sitting in the middle of the class. Then any student from first line is given opportunity to read the remaining lesson. Other students are asked questions and also they are required to listen the lesson.

Q no 4: Are the students given the homework daily?

Ans:  Not daily. But sometimes they are given the homework.

 Qno 5: Is the homework checked regularly?

Ans : I try my level best to check the homework.  

Qo no 6: Do students make a noise in the class?

Ans : In the absence of the teacher they do. But when the teacher is inside the class they listen to the teacher.

Q no 7: What skill is focused?

Ans: Mostly reading and sometimes written work is also assigned to them. As I have mentioned that we have to complete the syllabus.

Q no 8: Tell me some problems which are mostly seen in the large size classes?

Ans: The major problem of such large size English classes is the timing problem. We have to complete the lesson within 50 minutes. And the number of students is 50 – 70. Many students need individual attention but we can not give them.

Q no 9: Do you involve them in group work?

Ans: At the end of the lesson we have exercises. In order to complete those exercises we involve them in group work.

 Q no 10: Does the current book of ix class fulfill the need of the students?

Ans: yes, books are good enough. But only some other activities keeping in mind the size of classroom should be mentioned.














Interview from the teacher B.

FG Boys’ High School Hyderabad Cantt: Class x.


Q no 1 What is the number of students in your class?

Ans : There are 61 students.

Q no 2: It means it is a large class. What is your experience about teaching and management of large size classes?

Ans :  In my opinion it is very  difficult to teach in  large  size classes.

Q no 3: How do you manage such large size classes?

Ans : We teach normally as we teach in small classes. Both students and teachers are habitual of such large classes. Now we do not feel discomfort in such classes.

Q no 4: Are the students given the homework daily?

Ans : Mostly they are given the homework.

Qno 5: Is the homework checked regularly?

 Ans : Yes,  home work is checked.

Qo no 6: Do students make a noise in the class?

Ans : Yes. It is the habit of the students. But we can control.

Q no 7: What skill is focused?

Ans : Reading and writing.

Q no 8: Tell me some problems which are mostly seen in the large size classes?

Ans :  All students do not have opportunity  to read. They are not given individual attention. Students can not interact with the teacher.

Q no 9: Do you involve them in group work?

Ans : I do not involve them in group work. Because we do not have space in the class to move the chairs and sit in groups.

Q no 10: Does the current book of x class fulfill the need of the students?

Ans : I think we should have different syllabus for large size English classes.

Interview from the teacher C.

FG Girls’ High School Hyd Cantt: ix Class.

Q no 1: What is the number of students in your class?

Ans : There are 67 students.

Q no 2: It means it is a large class. What is your experience about teaching and management of large size classes?

Ans :  In my opinion it is very  difficult to teach in  large  size classes.

Q no 3: How do you manage such large size classes?

Ans  : We teach normally as we teach in small classes. Both students and teachers are habitual of such large classes. Now we do not feel discomfort in such classes.

Q no 4: Are the students given the homework daily?

Ans : Mostly they are not  given the homework.

Qno 5: Is he homework checked regularly?

 Ans: Whenever they are given homework than it is checked.

Qo no 6: Do students make a noise in the class?

Ans:  Of course when we have large classes they make a noise even students in small classes make a noise.

Q no 7: What skill is focused?

Ans : Reading and writing.

Q no 8: Tell me some problems which are mostly seen in the large size classes?

Ans: I think the effective learning does not take place in such large ELT classes. Also it makes the problems in the checking homework.

Q no 9: Do you involve them in group work?

Ans: No, I do not. Because management of such groups is also difficult. 

Q no 10: Does the current book of x class fulfill the need of the students?

Ans: No I think according to large size classes syllabus should be modified.

Data collected from classroom observation

As it was mentioned that classroom observation was one of the instrument for data collection. The findings which were collected from classroom observation are mentioned bellow.

Observation shows that there is a lack of management in large size English language classes in FGEIs Hyderabad Region. Students are engaged in such large ELT classes only through reading. We can say that only reading skill is mostly focused. Other skills including listening, speaking and writing are ignored. Writings skill is focused only in the form of completion of exercises. Extra writing activities such as paragraph, applications, précis and essay writing are not given in large size ELT classes. As for as speaking skill is concerned students are not given topics for speaking. They are also not involved in speaking activities such as topic discussion, free discussion, role play and presentation. Only sometimes students are asked questions related to the lesson of the book and they are required to give appropriate answers. The use of mother tongue and code switching are also common factors in large size ELT classes. Students are given instructions in mother tongue. Listening is ignored completely. Students have opportunities only to listen each other or teacher. No lesson of listening from the native speaker is taught. Vocabulary is also taught in mother tongue. Words are written on the board and then their meaning is taught by the teacher before and after the lesson. Words are not taught from the context.  










This chapter gives analysis and interpretation of data regarding the Problems of large size ELT classes. This study was based on qualitative .The main purpose of this study was to find out the existing problems of large classes as perceived by the teacher. The students and suggest methods, techniques and strategies then,


4.5 Discussion

The purpose of the study was to investigate the existing problems in the management of large size ELT, classes in different institution at high school level in FGEIs Hyderabad Region and focus upon the use of appropriate methods, techniques and strategies to address them, it was, perhaps the first study carried out by a research in the management of large size English Teaching classes in FGEIs Hyderabad Region. The mode of the investigation for the study was in the shape of interviews formulated is the light of hypotheses. These hypotheses were formulated in the light of researcher’s own experience of learning\teaching in large size ELT classes, in formal interviews\discussions, with the teachers, students and administrators at various levels and situation, The review of related literature provided a strong basic for the development of these hypotheses which  dealt with the concept of management of large size ELT classes, class size controversy discussion under the heating Class size Phenomenon with specific reference to develop and developing countries, ELT situation and problems of large size ELT classes with their possible solutions, as briefly given below,                                                                                                                                                                        In the said review, it was found that the terms classroom management.                                                                                






This chapter deals with the conclusion and suggestions in the light of the study. On analysis and interpretation of data it was found that the ELT teachers faced multidimensional problems in the management of large size ELT classes. In the light of the research conclusion has been drawn.

5.1 Conclusions

 Research describes that it becomes very difficult to give individual attention to the weak students in large size classroom. Most of the teachers do not feel comfortable while teaching in large classes. It is also very difficult for the teacher to carry out an effective evaluation in a large size ELT classes. Teachers find it almost impossible to check the home assignments of all the students in a large size ELT class on regular basis. Modern teaching aids are not available in most of the institutions. Pupil- teacher interaction can not be maintained in a large size ELT class. Present English language course needs improvement. Most of the teachers lack special training large classes’ management. As compared to a class of small size there is a large range of individual variation in large size classes being students more in number. Parent-teacher, teacher-student meetings need to be arranged. Present syllabus helps in improving the reading and writing skills but does not improve their speaking and listening skills. Most of the teachers and students agree that large size classes have specific problems.

Suggestions In the light of study and the conclusions drawn, following suggestions are given.

5.2.1    Suggestions for action


  1. Maintenance of discipline be given top priority. A teacher should ensure proper discipline by being firm, fair and friendly to his students.
  2. Weak students be given individual attention. If needed the teacher should give the extra time in coaching so that they come up to the level of other students.
  3. Teacher should come well prepared in the class. An unprepared teacher can never feel comfort able in a class of large size.
  4. Effective evaluation be ensured in a class of large size. When a test or assignment is given to the students that must be checked fairly well in time and students must be given immediate feed back.
  5. Modern teaching aids should be provided to an ELT teacher. In this modern age of technology just a chalk and black board may not prove that effective as are view graph, multimedia and other aids.
  6. The teacher should develop proper rapport with the class. This will compel the students morally to co-operate with the teacher.
  7. Present English language curriculum needs to be modified and if possible special curriculum be developed for large size ELT classes.
  8.  There should be no dependence on lecture method only. Many modern techniques of communicative method of teaching can be applied for effective class management.
  9. Only those teachers be involved in teaching of large size classes who have professional ELT training.



Future Research

On the basis of the findings, conclusion and discussion of the study and keeping in view that such problems exist every where, the researcher recommends that:

  1. The problems of managing large size classes in the institutions of other areas of the country be explored.




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